Category:Raw Materials

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In this section we will look at the different raw materials than can be used to make paper, and the processes by which we get from the plant to the individual fibre.

Raw materials could be considered in three broad categories, Fibres, Water and Chemicals. Each of these categories will have many subcategories.


A fibre is sometimes described as an object that is at least thirty times longer than it is wide. In the broadest terms, fibres can be considered to fall into one of two groups, natural, or synthetic. The natural group can be subdivided into




While the synthetic group will encompass

Organic (essentially derived from oil or other hydrocarbons)



By following this Fibre Index link, you will go to a directory where I have started to list all the fibres used in papermaking. From that page you can follow the links to more information about the individual fibres.

View my short video about fibres on You Tube by clicking on the link below



Water for papermaking can be sourced from surface water, ground water or mains water. Increasingly water within a mill is being recovered and reused, so now we have a fourth source, recycled water.

Some paper mills now have no liquid discharge at all. They take in small quantities of water to compensate for water losses by spillage and evaporation. These type of mills are known as totally closed mills. An open mill makes no attempt to recover any of its own water. Most mills are classified as semi-open.

This category is primarily concerned with incoming raw water, its problems and qualities, and water recovery loops within the mill. Effluent will be considered as a separate category.

View my short video about water on You Tube by clicking on the link below



Chemicals is a huge area. The chemicals used in the mill can be broadly grouped as

Cleaning chemicals (usually used when the machine is not producing)

Functional chemicals (there for the benefit of the customer)

Process chemicals (to help the process run more smoothly and economically)

Pulping chemicals (to dissolve the lignin and protect the cellulose)

Bleaching chemicals (to make the pulp brighter)

Deinking chemicals (to separate the ink from the fibres)

View my short video about chemicals on You Tube by clicking on the link below


Pages in category "Raw Materials"

This category contains only the following page.

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